Q: What are the "Grand
A: In the live steam hobby (outdoor
riding trains) the term "large scale" generally refers
to 7 1/2" or 7 1/4" gauge trains, because decades ago
the most popular gauges were even smaller than these (on train
tracks "gauge" is the distance between the inside edges
of the rails). But there have always been many miniature trains
even bigger than that, and more are being built all the time.
So what is larger than "large scale"? . . . the Grand Scales. In
the United States and Canada there are no popular gauges between
7 1/2" and 12". Thus 12" gauge has become the
unofficial lower limit of Grand Scale trains (there are a few
exceptions). In England, however, there are many 10 1/4"
gauge railways with truly substantial equipment. These lines
are generally considered Grand Scale railroads. One of the first
deciding factors is that engineers and passengers should ride
"in" the equipment instead of "on top of it".
Another less tangible prerequisite is a sense of "bigness"
inherent in the equipment. Grand Scalers generally "know
it when they see it". Very few trains of less than 10"
gauge could really be considered of the Grand Scales.
Q: What is the upper
size limit of the Grand Scales?
A: There is no upper gauge limit.
The deciding factor is the term "Scale". There are
many 24" gauge trains that are scale models (or rough miniaturized
replicas) of larger equipment. These would qualify. Yet there
are a great many industrial narrow gauge lines built to 24"
gauge and these would not, since they are "full size"
trains. One of the largest examples of a Grand Scale train might
be the original Disneyland equipment which was built to 36"
gauge, but was in reality a 5/8 scale replica of a standard gauge
train (admittedly, that's stretching it a bit).
Q: What about the British
"minimum gauge" estate railways? They're not "scale".
A: Sir Arthur Heywood started
building 15" gauge equipment over a century ago. He said
that his equipment was not a toy "miniature railway".
Rather it was the minimum practical gauge for true freight (goods)
and passenger service. His trains were indeed not models of any
prototype. A number of modern lines in England define themselves
as "not miniature" railways, but are instead "minimum
gauge" lines. Some readers have argued that perhaps these
are not true Grand Scale but are small prototypes in their own
right. All well and good, but if they go to the trouble to put
little correctly proportioned cabs on the locos with cute little
windows, and the coaches look as though they've been shrunk from
larger ones, the editorial staff of GSQ will happily write about
them regardless of what name they carry. Generally speaking,
any 15" gauge railway is considered Grand Scale.
Q: Where can I ride these
A: A quick first place to look
will be on our links page. See if there are any trains listed near you.
How far you need to travel will depend on the kind of experience
you are looking for. Fans of "park trains" have it
a bit easier. Most larger amusement parks and many zoos have
great train rides. For those looking for a more "railroady"
experience, especially with real steam engines, it may be a longer
drive. If there is a 7 1/2" gauge live steam club in your
area, go hang around the track, or better yet join up. It will
be fun, and you may learn of someone local who owns a private
Grand Scale railroad (many of them like to keep a pretty low
Q: I want to build my own
Grand Scale railroad. How do I start?
A: Step One: Get a subscription
to the Grand Scales Quarterly, and get a copy of the Big Little
Railways Continued video or another
of our productions. Step Two: Ask yourself three questions. Am
I willing to commit to a hobby that is measured not in weeks
or months, but years and decades? Am I willing to have my hobby
be my third largest expense after my home and automobile [actually,
it's number two . . . it will cost a LOT more than your car(s)]?
Is my spouse willing to share me with a mistress that has curvaceous
flanged wheels and a heart of steel? If the answer is YES to
all three of these questions then you are a prime candidate.
If you are new to the hobby altogether,
you will also want to get a subscription to the 7+ RAILROADER to get as much education as possible. Get your
hands on all the references you can. Find the Grand Scale railroads
in your region and visit them. Talk to the people who built them.
Get to know as many people as you can and as many different railroads
as you can. Listen a lot. Ask a lot of questions. But don't be
offended if they seem incredulous at first. Every year they hear
a thousand people say, "I'm going to build one of these".
And maybe one out of the thousand does. If you can, volunteer
at a railroad and sweat over their track for a while. Every hour
you spend volunteering with an experienced crew will ultimately
save you three hours on your own track.
Be patient. Learn. Be willing to
start small and build up. The huge empires you see in the magazines
and on the videos were built by many people over decades. But you have to start somewhere and
sometime. And here and now is the time. As the shoe people say,
"Just do it."
Q: How much do these trains
A: It varies widely. Some people
have built little "diesel" engines out of the junk
yard for under a thousand dollars. Others spend well over $200,000
for a single working steam engine. It has been said of the live
steam hobby that there is a triangle, the three points of which
are TIME, MONEY, and SKILL. You can do without any one of the
three, if you have more of the other two. The exception would
be money; with a mountain of that you can have whatever you want.
One item that is almost always
overlooked is the cost of laying the track. Some folks are fortunate
enough to have found miles of usable scrap mine or brick yard
rail and have a friend in the woods with a sawmill to give him
ties for free. His track may cost little more than the fuel for
his tractor. But new treated 4x4 ties, crushed rock ballast,
and freshly rolled 12 lb. steel rail might run up to $80,000
or $100,000 per mile. And believe me, used rail is getting mighty
scarce these days.
This is not to scare you out of
the hobby. Not at all. But it would be unfair to sugar-coat some
hard realities. Many people have started in the hobby by helping
at other railroads and by building their own rolling stock and
their own engines and running them on a friends railroad until
they build their own. Others have started very small layouts
and built on as the budget allows.
There are few hobbies with the
same sense of accomplishment and of pride in "stick-to-itivness".
And that is priceless. I have seen the look on builders' faces
when their first car rolls, when the first rail gets spiked down,
or when that steam engine is first fired up . . . words can't
come close to express the moment that they and their friends
Q: What are the most common
A: This is a real problem in
the Grand Scales. In North America you will find 12, 12 5/8,
14, 14 1/8, 15, 16, 18, 19, 22, 24, and 30 inch gauge Grand Scale
equipment. In the UK you will find 10 1/4, 12 1/4, and 15 inch
in common usage. There are two major reasons for all this chaos.
One is that until recently most of the Grand Scale railroaders
were true "lone wolves", working by themselves and
doing as they saw best. Second, manufacturers of amusement park
equipment had a vested interest in building to a gauge that was
incompatible with the equipment of competing companies. An unscientific
analysis has indicated that the popularity of Grand Scale gauges
in North America, from most to least would go 15, 16, 12, 14,
24, 18, 22, 30, 14 1/8, 19. In the UK the popularity, from most
to least would be 15, 10 1/4, 12 1/4. On both sides of the Atlantic
15" gauge leads by a very wide margin.
Q: What gauge should I
chose for my railroad?
A: There is no easy answer for
this question. Any choice will at best be a compromise. Educating
yourself thoroughly before making a decision may save you from
regrets later. Here are some factors to consider: 1) Is there
a predominant gauge in your area. If there are three 12"
gauge railroads within 50 miles of your home, and you've become
friends with all the owners, you have a strong impetus to go
2) Have you found some used equipment
of a certain gauge? Riding cars and diesels may be simpler to
re-gauge, but if you find a great deal on a couple of 14"
gauge steamers, the decision to go with 14" may have been
made by chance.
3) Compatibility and Resale Value.
If you are starting from scratch, you may feel free to do as
you please. You don't want to visit anyone, and you don't want
anyone to visit you. But circumstances change. You may have a
change of heart . . . or you may have a heart attack. Trains
outlast people. The Cagney brothers have been gone for decades,
but thousands of people every year enjoy riding behind the steam
engines they built. You may have a logical reason for chosing
to build to 13 5/16" gauge (or whatever), but chosing one
of the more popular gauges (15", 16", 12") will
be either benefit you or your heirs.
The Editor of GSQ freely admits
to having a strong preference for 15" gauge . . . and not
without reason. In North America, in Europe, and around the world
the most popular gauge is 15". Building a railroad in this
gauge increases the chance of finding desireable used and new
equipment in the future. It also opens more doors to having visiting
equipment and being able to visit other railroads with your equipment.
Once the decision of gauge is made,
the next decision is that of wheel standards (which informs the
specificaitons of your switches, crosover tracks, etc.) Let's
take 15" gauge as an example. There are a wide variety of
wheel standards out there. Two popular ones are the 3" scale
standards which are essentially the so-called "IBLS standards"
for 7.5" gauge that have been doubled in size. For 5"
scale equipment a common standard is the Redwood Valley wheel
and coupler standards developed by Erich Thomsen. Yet even some
builders of 3" scale equipment are chosing to use the Redwood
Valley standards because of their robust nature and growing popularity.
Many 15" railways in the UK use similarly large flanges,
and have found them to be very safe even at high speeds. Are
there railroads that you hope to visit some day with your equipment?
Find out what wheel standards they are using.
If you have questions, please feel free
to contact us. We don't know all the answers, but we know the
people who do. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org